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1. Glass Curtain Wall Technology and Sustainability in Commercial Buildings in Auckland, New Zealand | International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability

Al-Kodmany, K. (2016). Sustainable Tall Buildings: Cases From The Global South. International Journal of Architectural Research. 10 (2): 52-66. Arslan, G. & Eren, O. (2014). Analysis of effects of glass selection on energy efficiency in glass faade systems. Proceedings 4th International Conference on Advanced Construction, Kaunas, Lithuania. Bae, M.J, Oh, J.H. & Kim, S.S. (2015). The effects of the frame ratio and glass on the thermal performance of a curtain wall system. Energy Procedia. 78 2488-2493. Baggs, D. (2015). All-glass facades wo not exist in sustainable cities. Sourceable Industry News and Analysis, Architecture. (2007). Innovative Building Skins: Double Glass Wall Ventilated Faade. Innovative Building Skins: Double Glass Wall Ventilated Faade. Research paper for New Jersey School of Architecture, pp. 1-26. Structural Glass Systems under Fire: Overview of Design Issues, Experimental Research, and Developments. Hindawi Advances in Civil Engineering, 2017, ID 2120570, 1-18. Bedon, C. & Amadio, C. (2018). Numerical Assessment Of Vibration Control Systems For Multi-Hazard Design And Mitigation Of Glass Curtain Walls. Journal of Building Engineering. 15: 1-13. Bennett, A.F. (1987). Structural glazing in New Zealand: Development and current status. Building Research Association of New Zealand report # 13, National Building Technology Centre Seminar on Glazing, Sydney, Australia, 1-13. Bouden, C. (2007). Influence of Glass Curtain Walls On The Building Thermal Energy Consumption Under Tunisian Climatic Conditions: The Case Of Administrative Buildings. Renewable Energy. 32(1): 141-156. Butera, F.M. (2005). Glass architecture: is it sustainable? International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Cooling for the Built Environment, Santorini, Greece, 1-8. Cuce, E., Cuce, P.M. & Young, C.H. (2016). Energy Saving Potential Of Heat Insulation Solar Glass: Key Results From Laboratory And In-Situ Testing. Energy. 97: 369-380. Cuce, E. Riffat, S.B. & Young, C.H. (2015b). Thermal Insulation, Power Generation, Lighting And Energy Saving Performance Of Heat Insulation Solar Glass As A Curtain Wall Application In Taiwan: A Comparative Experimental Study. Energy Conversion and Management. 96: 31-38. Ding, G.K.C. (2008). Sustainable Construction - The Role Of Environmental Assessment Tools. Journal of Environmental Management. 86: 451-464. Flemmer, C.L. & Flemmer, R.C. (2005). Measures Of Sustainability: What Do They Mean And How Well Do They Work? Proceedings of the 2005 Australia-New Zealand Society for Ecological Economics (ANZSEE) Conference, Palmerston North, New Zealand, pp. 1-10. Futcher, J., Mills, G., Emmanuel, R & Korolija, I. (2017). Creating Sustainable Cities One Building At A Time: Towards An Integrated Urban Design Framework. Cities. 66: 63-71. Hachem, C. & Elsayed, M. (2016). Patterns of Faade System Design For Enhanced Energy Performance Of Multistorey Buildings. Energy and Buildings. 130: 366-377. Kassem, M., Dawood, N. & Mitchell, D. (2012). A Decision Support System For The Selection Of Curtain Wall Systems At The Design Development Stage. Construction Management and Economics. 30(12): 1039-1053. Kazmierczak, K. (2010). Review of Curtain Walls, Focusing On Design Problems And Solutions, Proceedings of the Building Enclosure Science and Technology Conference (BEST2) Conference (pp.1-20). Portland, Oregon. Kumar, G. & Raheja, G. (2016). Design Determinants Of Building Envelope For Sustainable Built Environment. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability. 3(2): 111-118. Lim, J.Q.Y. & Gu, N. (2007). Environmental Impacts Of Ventilation And Solar Control Systems In Double Skin Faade Office Buildings. 41st Annual Conference of the Architectural Science Association, Victoria, Australia, 149-156. Maheswaran, U. & Zi, A.G. (2007). Daylighting and Energy Performance Of Post Millennium Condominiums in Singapore. International Journal of Architectural Research. 1(1): 26-35. Onyeizu, R. (2014). The Delusion Of Green Certification: The Case Of New Zealand Green Office Buildings. Proceedings of 4th New Zealand Built Environment Research Symposium (NZBERS), Auckland, New Zealand. 1-20. Onyeizu, E. & Byrd, H. (2011). Understanding the Relationship between Occupants' Productivity and Daylighting in Commercial Buildings: A Review of Literature. 5th International Conference & Workshop on Built Environment in Developing Countries (ICBEDC), Penang, Malaysia. 1-13. Pariafsai, F. (2016). A Review Of Design Considerations In Glass Buildings. Frontiers of Architectural Research. 5: 171-193. Selkowitz, S.E., Lee, E.S. & Aschehoug, O. (2003). Perspectives on Advanced Facades With Dynamic Glazings And Integrated Lighting Controls. CISBAT 2003, Innovation in Building Envelopes and Environmental Systems International Conferences on Solar Energy in Buildings (pp.1-7). Lausanne, Switzerland. Simmler, H. & Binder, B. (2008). Experimental and Numerical Determination Of The Total Solar Energy Transmittance Of Glazing With Venetian Blind Shading. Building and Environment. 43: 197-204. Young, C.H., Chen, Y.L. & Chen, P.C. (2014). Heat Insulation Solar Glass And Application On Energy Efficiency Buildings. Energy and Buildings. 78: 66-78.

2. (PDF) Glass Curtain Wall Technology and Sustainability in Commercial Buildings in Auckland, New Zealand

th es e innovations are expensive and not necessarily more sustainable over the building life cycle. Finally, the occupants' perspective on GCW building s is very important since it is related to occupant productivity and the cost of occupant salaries is much g ater than the HVAC energy c osts during the operation of th e GCW was first used in New Zealand in the early 1980s, with the first three buildings located in Auckland ( Bennett, 1987), a city of about 1.6 million people that covers an area of 531 square kilometers and has a temperat e climate. Standard GCW is unsuitable for buildings in earthquake-prone regions but although earthquakes are common in New Zealand, Auckland a region with little seismic activity. Consequently the density of buildin with GCW is higher in Auckland than in other New Zealand This research reviews the published studies on the technology and sustainability of GCW and summarizes the findings in se ctions 1.1 and 1.2. It then assesses GCW in New Zealand using a ca study of thirty commercial buildings with glazed faades in Auckland's central business district. The technology of the GCW is based on glass type, building use, age, size and maintena e). The sustainability of the GCW is examined using the occupants' perspectives on their buildings and the opinions of industry experts on the use of GCW in New Zealand. The expected future use of this type of f aade in Auckland is discussed in the conte of There are several different GCW systems including the stick- mullions and horizontal transoms attached to the building and supporting glass panels. Thi s was followed by t he unitized system , where preassembled modular units of glass in aluminium or steel frame s are interlocked with a djacent units and fixed to the building with rigid brackets. Frameless GCWs are relatively new and aim to give the outside view of the building the appearance of continuous glass, unbroken by frame elements. The three most The choice of curtain wall system and materials has a signif icant impact on the aesthetics of a build g and can account for 15-25% of total construction costs. Ther e is a high risk associated with innovative GCW systems so that designers tend to favour GCW systems they are familiar with and those that have the most secure Aside from the system classification above, GCWs c an have m any different characteristics such as place of assembly, curtain wall function (for example fire rated or blast resistant), glass type (for wall heat transfer perfor mance (for example, with the inclusion of thermal breaks). These are discussed in Pariafsai (2016) and Kazmierczak (2010). The latter also gives the common performance failures for GCWs such as poor heat flow (causing defects (in the glass itself, in the atings, from corrosion or from poor maintenance). In addition to these, the local climate has to be considered when making the decision to use GCW; they may not be appropriate for certain buildings in tropical clim ates. For example, in Singapore many res ential condominiums have GCWs that have very high electricity costs, excessive glare and (2008) discuss the use of venetian blinds to offset the overheating problems that are common with unshaded g lazed buildings. GCW has two conflicting requirements; it should allow as much natural light into the building as possible while at the same time having minimal heat transfer across the building envelope. Glass transfers heat into and out of the building readily so that GCWs tend to have a significant eff ect on building operation costs and 2012). The greater the area of glass the worse the problem (Cuce, Young and Riffat, 2015a) and the higher the frame ratio (area of the metal frame/area of the GCW) the greater the heat transfer and the poorer the thermal performance of the curtain wall (Bae, The heat transmission ( U-value) of a single pane of clear glass is about 5.8 W/m K. Double glazing with argon in the gap and low emissivity glass has a U-value of 1.1 W/m K, meaning that its heat transfer is only about one fifth of that for single clear glass panes. Thus, wit considerably i ncreased cost, a GCW can have acceptable thermal performance. However, when light transfer is considered the picture changes. A single pane of clear glass in a room transmits about 85% of incoming solar radiation to the inside of the room. reflects about 10% and it absorbs about 5%. The absorbed radiation makes the glass hot so that it becomes a low temperature radiator; it transmits heat (by r adiation and convection) to each of its faces. The proportion transmitted to each face depends o the face temperature the lower the face temperature, the greater the proportion of heat transmitted to it. If both faces of the glass are at the same temperature, then 50% of the absorbed 5% r adiation (i.e. 2.5%) is radiated inside the room so that a t al of 87.5% of the incoming solar radiation goes into the room. In practice it is slightly worse than this bec ause for a cooler exterior, the outside surface is cooler and more heat is transferred out of the building while, for a hotter exterior, the inn er surface is cooler and m ore heat is transferred into the of a single pane of clear glass is 0.87 (Bouden, 2007 ; Mehta et al., glazing with argon in the gap and low emissivity glass is 0.64 (Manz, 2004) i.e. about 75 percent that of a single pane of clear

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